Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (22 February 1857 – 8 January 1941), also known as B-P, BP, or Lord Baden-Powell, was a lieutenant-general in the British Army, writer, educational innovator and founder and Chief Scout of the Scout Movement. After having been educated at Charterhouse School, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell successfully defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his Africa years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for youth readership. In 1907, he held the first Scout Camp on Brownsea Island, which is now seen as the beginning of Scouting. It is B-P’s writings and Scouting program that are the roots of all Scouting organizations and associations around the world..